REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Definition of Speaking
According to Harmer (1991: 46-47) states that when the two people are engaged in talking to each other we can be sure that they in general way to suggest that a speaker makes a define decision to address someone. Speaking may be forced on him in the way but we still say that he wants or intends to speak, otherwise he would keep silent.
According to Maybin (1992: 56) says that communication is an exchange between people, knowledge, information, ideas, options, feeling so there must be concept, ideas, in the fellow speaker of what they are going to say. The speakers have a basic competence in communication their ideas. The able to communicate their ideas, the students will be given opportunity to practice their English. According to Micheal (1998: 103) language is a symbolic system used by communicators to construct and convey information. Good languages developed by a system, set of rules followed by the wearer.
According to Nunan (1991: 47) Speaking is one of four skills of English. It can help people to understand something from other interlocutors of language. Speaking will be focus for the first section on speaking. It involves fluent and accuracy expression meaning, the exercising of pragmatic, or communicative, competence and the observance of the rules of appropriate. Communication is a collaboration venture in which the interlocutors negotiate meaning in order to achieve their communication.
According to Widdowson (1985: 57) that speaking is an oral communication that gives information involves two elements, they are; the speaker who gives the message and the listener who receives the message in the world, the communication involves the productive skill of listening. And he also states that an act of communication through speaking is commonly perform in face to face interaction and occur as a part of dialogue or rather than form or verbal exchange.
From definition above, the writer concludes that speaking is a form to say or talk something with expressing of ideas, opinions, views and description to other for getting response or way of conveying message in order to make understanding of wishes to other and to contribute to the other. To do speaking activities, it must involve the speaker and the listener or only speaker involved.
2.2 The Elements of Speaking
In speaking skill, some specific elements have strong correlation with this skill, it is consist of;
According to Brown (1981: 8) states “pronunciation is the sound that the speaker can imitate from others. In this case, a listener can imitate when he is listening to others”. He continuous that language user can imitate from others. In this case, a listener can imitate from the speaker and then say same thing to others listeners.
According to Broughton (1988: 49) states that “pronunciation is way to sound the words of which to give its meaning”. He continuous that in teaching pronunciation, the teacher has to repeat the sounds on the pronunciation of a word until the students can get the perfect one.
According to Harmer (1991: 11) points out pronunciation as how to say a word in which is made of sound, stress and intonation. Some important points on pronunciation such as sounds, stress, and rhythm, and intonation will be discussed and it is consist of:
One their own the sound of language may well meaningless. If you said /t/ (the line show that this is phonetic script) a few times, e.g. tu, it will not mean very much English. Neither will be sounds /k/, /a/, or /s/ but if we put all these are sound together a certain order we and up the word catch and does mean something.
Stress is a feature of word not only when the words construct phonemically minimal pair partner, but also in giving shape to a word as spoken.
Edinburg (1986: 164) Intonation is the “tunes” or melody” of English Intonation is clearly important item and component user of language recognize what meaning it has and can change the meaning of word they through using it in different ways, when we taught English language, students need it use rhythms and stress correctly if they are understood.
2.3 The Categories of Speaking
Walter (1984: 54) classify speaking in two categories as follows:
a. Speaking informatively
By informative speaking, we mean speaking appropriates to situation in the audiences are not host line in the speakers’ ideas in which the speaker need only to present these ideas with maximum clarify and vividness.
Walter explain about speaking informative as follows: an informativel speech gives an audience more information about something than they already have. In order to be effective informational speakers need to accomplish four tasks:
1) Make the listener wants to learn more about the topic.
2) Communicative the internal clearly and understandably and not “overload” listeners with information.
3) Stress the key points.
4) Find the way to involve the members if the audiences in the presentation.
2. Speaking persuasively
Walter states that persuasive is appropriate to stimulate in which the speaker wishes to change or heighten the attitude belief values or behavior of an audience. Walter (1984: 56) also describe about persuasive speaking as follows: the goal of persuasive speech is to modify the though, feeling or actions of an audience.
2.4 The Kinds of Speaking
Speaking is commonly divided into two kinds namely speaking performance and speaking competence. In this research the writer will explain them further.
a. Speaking Performance
According to Martin H. Manser (1991: 306) state that performance is the person’s process or manner of a play. Therefore we may conclude that speaking performance is the way of one’s manner in speaking. Which is assessed through how the fluency and accuracy are. Marcel (1978: 78) distinguishes the outlined of accuracy and fluency. According to him that accuracy is the manner of people in using appropriate words and the pattern of sentences while fluency is someone ways of speaking dealing with how to procedure words in certain period of times without missing any main words on their speech.
b. Speaking Competence
According to Martin H. Manser (1991: 80) state that competency is having the ability, skill and knowledge to do something. Then, through this basic definition, we also may conclude that speaking competency is the ability of someone to speak which is supported with adequate skill and knowledge and it is not assessed how it is delivered.
For further information, we somewhat confuse. Therefore, we have to differentiate between competency and performance. According to Savignon (1988: 9) state that there is a theoretical defence between competence and performance. Competence is defined as presumes underlying ability, and performance as the overt manifestation of that ability. Competence is what one knows. Performance is what one does. Only performance can be developed, maintained, and evaluated.
2.5 The Characteristics of The Success in Speaking
According to Arthur (2003: 120), speaking for learner is not easy, at least four criterias should be covered by the learner in speaking activity, as follos as:
a. Learner talks a lot
As much as possible the period of time allotted to the activity is in fact occupied by learner talk. This way seems obviously but often must time is taken up by teachers talk.
b. Participants is even
Classroom discussion is not dominated by monitory of talkative participants, they get a chance to speak, and contribution is fairly and evenly distributed.
c. Motivation is high
Learners are able to speak because they are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it, or because they want contribution to achieve task objective
d. Language is an acceptable level
Learner expresses themselves in utterance that is relevance easily comprehensible to each other, and acceptable.
2.6 Speaking as The Language Skill
According to Chastain (1976: 333) speaking is a productive skill, its development is undertaken after the receptive skill of listening comprehension, perhaps of reading and is always somewhat behind that of the receptive skill. Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words.
According to Elizabeth Blount (2005: 36) There are four criteries used to mark the speaking test are: Communicative ability and content this criterion refers to the candidate’s ability to express opinions and information. It also refers to the candidate’s ability to initiate and respond to questions appropriately and their ability to take an active part in the interaction. Pronunciation and fluency this criterion refers to the candidate’s ability to produce comprehensible language and includes aspects such as the production of individual sounds, stress patterns, amount of hesitation and accent. Lexical accuracy and range this criterion refers to the candidate’s accurately and appropriate use of vocabulary to communicate in the speaking test. It also refers to the candidate’s ability to cope with vocabulary problems encountered during the test and the ability to use circumlocution. Grammatical accuracy and range this criterion refers to the range and accuracy of the grammatical structures which the candidate uses during the speaking test.
2.7 Some Strategies for Developing Speaking Skill
According to Nurdaya (2012: 8) in her research, some strategies for developing skill are:
a. Using minimal responses
According to Nurdaya (2012: 8) in her research, to increase the language learner how have trouble in speaking so that they can participate in oral communication and is not be a listener while the other do the talking, using minimal response is one of strategies to grow up the language learner although they do not have many vocabulary by give topic or question to the silent learner which they can answer with using minimal reponses, the minimal response such as “yeah”, “no”, “yes”, “ummm”, and many other responses which people can show that they are interesting or lack interest of that topic of speaking or what another speaker saying. By using minimal responses the learner could focus on the other saying without having to simultaneously plan a response
b. Recognizing scripts
According to Nurdaya (2012: 9) in her research, using recognizing scripts can help the beginner speaking by make a classification about every communication situation with predictable set of spoken exchanges such as greetings, apologies, compliments, invitations, request and many other scripts, by using scripts the learner could be a active speaker because they know and could prediction the answer from the question in a conversation, the instructors or the teachers must give many example script in different situation so that the learner can develop their speaking ability and give more practice using the script.
c. Using language to talk about language
According to Rustan (2004: 10) in his research, some strategies in speaking ability are understanding the question, asking for clarification, giving an organizing answer, asking question correctly and playing rules.
According to Nurdaya (2012: 9) in her research, using language to talk language is a method which the teachers or the instructors to resolve the problem when the learner faced the problem such misunderstanding between the learner and the other in communication so that can make the learner become shy or embarrassed, the learner does not understand the speaker says, when they realize a conversation their partner could not understand them so that the learner does not want to speak again, to overcome this situation the teachers or the instructors have key position to clarify that misunderstanding and clarification something can occur in any types of conversation and in any level of language skill and give motivation so that the student will have confidence in communication in various situation in any where.
d. Understanding the question correctly
According to Nurdaya (2012: 10) in her research, the foreign speaker sometimes speaks quickly, it is difficult for the learner to understanding the speaker talk. The listeners have to know the different about direct question, indirect question, requests and confirming question, example:
1) What is his name? – Direct question (Direct questions are the normal question)
2) Do you know what his name is? – Indirect question(Indirect questions are polite then direct questions and their forms are longer than the normal direct question)
3) Would you like to tell me your phone number? – request sentences (using to request something)
4) You are going to study economics, are you? – confirming sentences (using to confirming something)
e. Asking for clarification
According to Nurdaya (2012: 10) in her research, asking clarification need to clarify the meaning of the question or statements in conversations which we do not understand, example:
1) Speaker: could you tell me where is department store near from here ?
2) Listener: I do not catch that, could you repeat the question please ?
We can clarify the meaning of specific words or phrase we do not understand, for example, we say sorry, I do not know what you mean ? and we can say “would you mind to explain again ?
f. Giving an organizing answer
According to Nurdaya (2012: 11) in her research, we have to organize detailed answer so as clear as we can so that listener could understand our question or our statements, before beginning to answer the question, it is possible to comment on it by saying, if you use this strategy, it will give you a little more time to prepare an organized answer.In organizing answer,it may be useful as in writing to begin a sentence or phrase that gives a summary of the main points that we are going to talk about.
g. Asking question correctly
According to Nurdaya (2012: 11) in her research, the question needs answer clearly and correctly so that we could transferring our aim our statement, with the clearly and the correctly there is no misunderstanding between the speaker and the listener. We can check the speaker’s understanding and we need to develop our confidence in forming correct question.
h. Playing Role
According to Nurdaya (2012: 11) in her research playing role could helpful to increase speaking skill because when you playing role you could be the listener and the speaker in the same time, there is interaction between the other characters. To play our role well, we have to understand some things are like :
1. Who our characters is ?
We might decide that this our character is a tourist, business person or as a student. We can make the situation more realistic by giving some information about our character. For example, if we decide we are tourist, we could say : we have just arrived form indonesia and this is the first time coming in this country.
2. What our characters needs ?
We need to get all the information required on the information, when we have finished, there may be an opportunity for us to ask addition question.
3. What relationship our character has with the character played by the speaker ?
As in most service encounter we are strangers. As a result, your language needs to reflect this. When the speaker answer our question, we must listen and respon appropriate the speaker’s answer influences our response. For example:
Listener : How many different levels do you have in your toefl courses ?
Speaker : Well, we have got a level for everybody, beginners, intermediate and advance.
Listener : That is good. I am interested in the beginners’ course. Could you tell me when the course are told ?
2.8 The Relationship of The Other Abilities and Speaking Skill
According to Green and Petty (1978: 9) a teacher who thoughtfully recognize the interrelationship of language skills may well discover that a reading problem really hinge upon in sufficient oral language base. Since speaking is a part of the four language skills such as speaking, reading, writing and listening) its relationship cannot be neglected in developing speaking skill itself.
However, in the teaching of language skills, interrelationship are basic importance. Clearly, in teaching foreign language a teacher must realize the interrelatedness of the language skill. For example, in teaching reading to a child or teenager, without recognizing the importance of listening and speaking skill a teacher will find more difficulties. So the of skill is highly correlated to the other skills in establishing the mastery of language skills, especially in speaking.
2.9 The Teacher Role In Speaking Ability
According to Rustan (2004: 16) in his research the teacher’s role in giving material is very important. Their way using material can encourage student’s spirit to learn. According to Nurdaya (2012: 11) in her research, sometimes the teacher give the wrong teaching method to their students, they have to know the best method in teaching so that the learners interest in studying the language.
According to Nurdaya (2012: 11) in her research also, if many teaching methods can be used by the teacher to increase speaking ability such:
a. Giving some topic of discussion
According to Nurdaya (2012: 11) in her research, giving discussion could make students more active in the class, giving some topics making the student looking for appropriate of the material. Choosing interesting topic is really important for make a classroom situation lively.
b. Giving students more listening exercise
According to Askar (2005: 16) in his research the improving of the ability of listening comprehension will indicate support to the improvement of the quality of speaking. Listening a foreign conversation or foreign song makes the learner know the pronunciation of the words.
c. Teaching English using role play
According to Rizki (2011: 4) Role play in the process of learning English will be fun and can be effective. Technique of role play in the learning process is used to learn about the introduction of feelings and issues facing students, and to develop problem solving skills. Role play techniques aimed at solving problems concerning human relationships, particularly those involving student life and to motivate students to pay more attention to the content being taught. Role playing is a simulation of the behavior of people who played, which aims to train students in real situations; train intensively oral language practice, and provide the opportunity for students to develop communication skills.
d. Using storytelling
According to Nining (2011: 13) in her research “Stories engage the student’s imaginations and hold their interest, especially if there are pictures to go with the story. Through picture presentation, people are able to reach outside their minds”. Storytelling makes the learner feel like playing, through listening to stories students develop their vocabulary and grammar knowledge, which improves their fluency in verbal expression.
According to Nurdaya (2012: 13) in her research, following are steps that will enable teachers to success in using storytelling in the language classroom such:
a. The teacher decides whether to read, retell, or create a story.
b. The teacher should adjust his/her own language to that of the students.
c. Set the scene before beginning the story by showing picture of the main characters
d. Bring the characters to life by giving a short description of them.
e. Read or tell the story clearly with appropriate intonation by showing pictures.
f. Accompany the reading with appropriate gesture to make it clearer.
g. Let students follow the action and gestures. Later, they can do them on their own as they retell the story in their own word.
h. Read or tell the story many times or let students retell it, first to a partner and then to the class.
There are so many teaching methods in studying except the method above, that all depend on the teacher creativity and the system of the school itself.